واکاوی الگوی توانمندسازی اجتماع‌محور در روستاهای منطقه مکران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهشگاه علوم انسانی و مطالعات اجتماعی، جهاد دانشگاهی، تهران، ایران.

2 استاد دانشکده اقتصاد و توسعه کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار مرکز تحقیقات مدیریت رفاه اجتماعی، دانشگاه علوم توانبخشی و سلامت اجتماعی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

الگوهایی گوناگون از توانمندسازی جوامع محروم ارائه شده است، ولی تناسب آنها با شرایط جغرافیایی و زمانی مناطق مختلف امکان استفاده از آنها را محدود می‌کند. در نگاهی کلی، الگوی توانمندسازی از سوی متخصصان بهداشت و روان‌شناسی، مدیریت و جامعه‌شناسی و نیز صاحب‌نظران مسائل اجتماعی در جهان بسط و توسعه یافته است. هدف مطالعه حاضر دستیابی به الگویی برای توانمندسازی جوامع محروم در منطقه مکران با تاکید بر رویکرد توانمندسازی اجتماع محور در مناطق روستایی بود. بدین منظور، با توجه به جامعه مورد نظر، از روش کیفی به‌طور غالب استفاده شد و در عین حال، برای سنجش سطح توسعه و دستیابی به نمونه‌های آزمایشی، روش کمی به‌کار رفت. ابزار اصلی جمع‌آوری اطلاعات، گروه متمرکز در سطوح مختلف به‌همراه مشاهده مشارکتی بود. یافته‌های پژوهش نشان داد که باید توانمندسازی هم «از پایین به بالا» و هم «از بالا به پایین» اجرا شود؛ به‌ویژه، توانمندسازی در این جامعه مجموعه‌ای درهم‌تنیده از توانمندسازی افراد، نهادها و حکمرانان و نیز مدیران و کارشناسان سازمانی است. از این‏رو، باید الگوی توانمندسازی بر پایه این سه گروه و با تاکید بر آموزش عمومی و مهارتی طراحی شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of Community-Based Empowerment Model in Villages of Makran Region in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • I. Ghasemi 1
  • Kh. Kalantari 2
  • M.A. Mohammadi Gharehghani 3
1 Assistant Professor, Institute of Human and Social Science Researches / Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), Tehran, Iran.
2 Professor, Faculty of Agricultural Economics and Development, University of Tehran, Tehram, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Social Welfare Management Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences (USWRS), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Various models of empowerment of deprived and poor communities have been provided, but their adaptation to different geographical and temporal conditions and contexts with different social, cultural and economic conditions limits their use. At a glance, the empowerment model has been developed by psychologists and health, management and human resources professionals as well as sociologists and social scientists. Therefore, this study aimed at achieving a model for empowering disadvantaged communities in Makran region of Iran with emphasis on the community-based empowerment approach in the rural areas. For this purpose, according to the concerned society, the qualitative method was used predominantly; at the same time, quantitative methods were used to measure the level of development and to obtain experimental samples. The main tool for data collection was a focus group at different levels with participatory observation. The research findings showed that empowerment should be implemented both "bottom-up" and "top-down"; in particular, empowerment in this community was an intertwined set of empowerments of individuals, institutions and government administrators as well as managers and organizational experts. Therefore, the empowerment model should be designed based on these three groups and with emphasis on general and skill training.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Empowerment
  • Community-Based Empowerment
  • Empowerment Pattern
  • local development
  • Makran (Region)
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