عوامل موثر بر راه‌اندازی کسب و کارهای مستقل در نواحی روستایی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، دانشکده مدیریت کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکتری اقتصاد محیط زیست و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم تحقیقات تهران، ایران.

3 دانشجوی دکتری اقتصاد، توسعه و سیاست کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم تحقیقات تهران، ایران.

4 دانشیار گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، دانشکده مدیریت کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، ایران

چکیده

تشویق و توسعه کارآفرینی در نواحی روستایی و راه‌اندازی کسب­وکارهای مستقل در گرو بسیاری از عوامل و نهاده‌هاست که یکی از مهم‏ترین آنها دسترسی به اعتبارات و سرمایه به‏شمار می­رود. در این راستا، تحقیق پیمایشی حاضر با هدف شناخت عوامل مؤثر بر راه‌اندازی کسب‏وکارهای مستقل در بین دریافت­کنندگان اعتبارات خرد بانکی انجام شد. جامعه آماری تحقیق شامل 24980 نفر از دریافت‌کنندگان اعتبارات خرد (وام زیر پانصد میلیون ریال) از شعبه­های روستایی بانک­های کشاورزی استان قم بود. با استفاده از رابطة کوکران ،تعداد نمونه‌ها 255 نفر تعیین شد. همچنین، انتخاب نمونه‏ها با بهره‏گیری از روش نمونه‌گیری خوشه‌ای چندمرحله‌ای در سطح چهار بخش و هشت روستا صورت گرفت. ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺑﺮآورد ﻣﺪل لوجیت «احتمال راه‌اندازی کسب‏وکار مستقل» نشان داد که تأثیر متغیرهای وضعیت تأهل، خوداشتغالی اعضای خانوار، آورده شخصی زمین، آورده شخصی آب، شاخص منزلت اجتماعی، شاخص تعهد به بانک کشاورزی، روحیه و نگرش کارآفرینانه و شاخص مخاطره‌پذیری با اطمینان 99 درصد و متغیرهای سابقه شغل قبلی، نوع وام دریافتی، میزان نظارت بر استفاده از وام و آورده شخصی سرمایه با اطمینان 95 درصد مثبت و معنی‌دار بوده، در حالی که متغیر مدت زمان انتظار برای دریافت وام دارای تأثیر منفی و معنی­دار با اطمینان 99 درصد است. بنابراین، توصیه می‌شود که قبل از پرداخت اعتبارات، از طریق مقیاس‏های استاندارد، روحیه و نگرش کارآفرینانه، مخاطره‌پذیری، منزلت اجتماعی و تعهد به بانک متقاضیان این‏گونه اعتبارات ارزیابی و سپس، نسبت به تخصیص اعتبار اقدام شود. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Factor Influencing the Own-Business Start-up in Rural Areas of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Gh. Abdollahzadeh 1
  • A. Jamshidi Kouhsari 2
  • S.H. Hosseini-Almadani 3
  • M.Sh. Sharifzadeh 4
1 Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of Agricultural Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Goran, Iran.
2 PhD Student in Environment and Natural Resources Economics, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Researches and Sciences Branch, Tehran, Iran.
3 PhD Student in Agricultural Economics, Development and Policy, Islamic Azad University, Tehran Researches and Sciences Branch, Tehran, Iran.
4 Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of Agricultural Management, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Goran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The encouragement and development of entrepreneurship in rural areas and start-up of own businesses depend on several factors and inputs, one of the most important of which is access to credit and capital. Therefore, this survey study aimed to investigate the factors influencing the start-up of own-businesses among the micro-credit recipients of Bank Keshavarzi Iran (AgriBank of Iran) in rural areas of Qom province of Iran. The statistical population included 24980 micro-credit barrowers (credits less than 500 million IR rials) from rural branches of AgriBank of the province in the last five years. Using Cochran formula, the sample size was determined 255 individuals. Multi-stage cluster sampling method in four districts and eight villages were used to select samples. The results of estimated possibility logit model for the own-business start-up indicated significantly positive relations and the impacts of several variables including marital status, self-employed household members, personal brought land, personal brought water and also social status, commitment to the AgriBank, spirit and entrepreneurial attitude and risk taking indicators with 99 percent confidence as well as the other variables including previous job background, type of loan, monitoring the use of loans and private investment with 95 percent confidence, while the variable of waiting period to get the loan had a significantly negative impact with 99 percent confidence. Finally, it was recommended that prior to the allocation of credits, the applicants’ entrepreneurial attitudes; risk taking, social status, and commitment to the bank should be evaluated through the standard scale.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Self-employment
  • Micro-Credit
  • AgriBank
  • Own-Business
  • Qom (Province)
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