بررسی وضعیت نابرابری درآمدی در خانوارهای روستایی شهرستان نیشابور با تأکید بر نقش درآمدهای غیرکشاورزی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

2 استاد اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

3 استاد اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

4 استاد اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

چکیده

امروزه، درآمدهای غیرکشاورزی به بخشی مهم از منابع تأمین معاش در خانوارهای روستایی تبدیل شده است و نقشی مهم در کاهش فقر و نابرابری درآمدی دراین خانوارها دارد. از این‏رو، در مطالعة حاضر، نقش درآمدهای غیرکشاورزی در نابرابری درآمدی در خانوارهای روستایی شهرستان نیشابور با بهره‏گیری از شاخص تجزیه ضریب جینی بررسی شد. داده‏های مورد نیاز از 380 خانوار روستایی این شهرستان به روش نمونه‏گیری طبقه‏ای چندمرحله‏ای طی دوره زمانی شهریور تا بهمن 1396 از طریق مصاحبه حضوری و تکمیل پرسشنامه به‏دست آمد. نتایج حاصل از پرسشنامه‏ها نشان داد که در سال‏های 1395 و 1396، میانگین درآمد یک خانوار روستایی شهرستان نیشابور حدود 19/21 میلیون تومان بود که از آن میان، درآمدهای غیرکشاورزی (خوداشتغالی، مزدبگیری غیرکشاورزی، مستمری، اجاره و سود و یارانه) 8/48 درصد و درآمدهای کشاورزی (زراعت، باغ و دام) 1/51 درصد از کل درآمد خانوار را تشکیل می‏داد. بر پایة نتایج تجزیه ضریب جینی، در حالی که درآمدهای غیرکشاورزی نابرابری درآمدی را کاهش داده، درآمد از بخش کشاورزی (باغ و دام) موجب افزایش نابرابری درآمدی در خانوارهای روستایی شده است. همچنین، بیشترین سهم در نابرابری درآمدی خانوارهای روستایی مربوط به بخش دام با 34 درصد و کمترین سهم مربوط به یارانه‏ها با دو درصد بود. با توجه به نتایج به‏دست‏آمده، پیشنهاد سیاستی مطالعة حاضر فراهم‏سازی زمینه رشد فعالیت‏های غیرکشاورزی به‏ویژه فعالیت‏های مزدبگیری و خوداشتغالی غیرکشاورزی در مناطق روستایی به‏منظور کاهش نابرابری درآمدی است. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Income Inequality in Rural Households of Neyshabur County of Iran with Emphasis on the Role of Non-Farm Incomes

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Iravani 1
  • M. Daneshvar Kakhki 2
  • M. Ghorbani 3
  • A. Karbasi 4
1 PhD Student of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
2 Professor of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi university of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3 Professor of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
4 Professor of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Today, non-farm income is an important part of the livelihood strategies of rural households and plays a great role in reducing the poverty and income inequality. So, this study aimed at investigating the effect of non-farm incomes on income inequality in rural Neyshabur County of Iran. For this purpose, the Gini coefficient decomposition index was used. Required data were obtained from 380 rural households in the county using a multi-stage stratified random sampling method from September 2017 to January 2018. The results of the questionnaires showed that the average income of a rural household in Neyshabur in the period of 2016-2017 was about 211.9 IR million rials. The non-farm incomes (such as self-employment, non-farm wages, pension, rent and profits, and subsidies) accounted for 48.8 percent and farm incomes (permanent and temporary crop and livestock) accounted for 51.1 percent of the total rural households’ income. Gini coefficient decomposition results revealed that while non-farm incomes decreased income inequality, the farm income tended to increase the income inequality among the rural households. The largest share of rural households' income inequality was related to livestock income with 34 percent and the lowest related to the subsidies income source with 2 percent. Based on the results, the policy recommendation of this study is to provide a context for the growth of non-farm activities, especially non-farm wage and self-employment activities in rural areas, to reduce the income inequality.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Gini Coefficient Decomposition
  • Rural Non-Farm Income
  • Income Inequality
  • Neyshabur (County)
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