شناسایی مؤلفه های نهادینه سازی خدمات ترویج بازارمحور با رویکرد زنجیرة ارزش برنج در مناطق روستایی مازندران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 نویسنده مسئول و دانشجوی دکتری رشته ترویج کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران.

2 دانشیارگروه ترویج، ارتباطات و توسعه روستایی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران.

3 دانشیار ترویج کشاورزی و توسعه روستایی، گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

4 استادیار موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، معاونت مازندران، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، آمل، ایران.

چکیده

بی ­توجهی به شرایط بازار و تأکید صِرف بر افزایش تولید یکی از مشکلات اساسی نظام‌های ترویج کشاورزی است. نهادینه­ کردن خدمات ترویج بازارمحور می­ تواند نقش مفید و مؤثری در افزایش کمیت و کیفیت تولید و بهینه ­سازی زنجیره ارزش محصولات با تمرکز بر رشد اشتغال، کارآفرینی و رونق اقتصادی در مناطق روستایی داشته باشد. پژوهش حاضر با هدف شناسایی مؤلفه­ های نهادینه ­سازی خدمات ترویجی ­بازارمحور در زنجیره ارزش برنج درمناطق روستایی مازندران در سال 1398 انجام شد. گردآوری داده‌ها از طریق مصاحبه نیمه ­ساختارمند با 29 نفر از خبرگان کشور صورت گرفت و برای تحلیل داده­ ها، از روش تحلیل محتوای استقرایی استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که بر اساس رویکرد زنجیره ارزش برنج، فعالیت­ها به دو دسته تقسیم می­ شوند؛ یکی، فعالیت­های اولیه شامل تأمین نهاده ­ها، تولید، تبدیل، بازاریابی و مصرف برنج و دیگری، فعالیت­های پشتیبانی شامل ارائه ­آموزش­های مهارتی و مشاوره، تأمین منابع مالی، مدیریت منابع انسانی، وضع سیاست­های حمایتی و فراهم ‏سازی زیرساخت­های لازم به‏ ویژه در مناطق روستایی، که این دستة دوم به ‏عنوان مؤلفه­ های نهادینه ­سازی خدمات ترویج بازارمحور در زنجیره ارزش برنج مورد شناسایی قرار گرفت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identifying the Components for Institutionalization Market-Based Extension Services with Rice Value Chain Approach in Rural Areas of Mazandaran Province of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Gholamreza Rayatpanah 1
  • Gholamreza Mojarradi 2
  • Esmail Karamidehkordi 3
  • Bahman Amiri Larijani 4
1 Corresponding Author and PhD Student in Agricultural Extension, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Extension, Communication and Rural Development, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
3 Associate professor of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development, Agricultural Extension and Education Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
4 Assistant Professor of Rice Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Amol, Iran
چکیده [English]

Neglecting market conditions and emphasizing merely on production increase is one of the basic problems of agricultural extension systems. Institutionalizing extension services based on a market-oriented approach can play a useful and effective role in increasing the quantity and quality of production and optimizing the value chain of products with a focus on employment growth, entrepreneurship and economic prosperity in rural areas. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying the components for institutionalization of market-based extension services in the rice value chain in rural areas of Mazandaran Province, as Iran’s most rice producing province, in 2019. The required data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 29 purposefully selected rice experts and were analyzed through an inductive analysis method. The results showed that based on the value chain approach, the activities were classified in the two categories including ‘primary activities’ such as the supply of inputs, production, processing, marketing and consumption of rice and ‘support activities’ comprising providing training and advisory services, financial supports, human resource management, supportive policies, and the provision of the necessary infrastructure. It was also found that support activities were identified as effective factors in the institutionalization of market-oriented extension services in the rice value chain.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Market-Oriented Extension
  • Value chain
  • rice
  • Inductive Analysis
  • ADF (2016). The Gambia Agriculture Value Chains Development Project. Appraisal Report, OSAN Department. March 2016. African Development Fund (ADF).
  • Bagheri, A. and Shabanali Fami, H. (2009). Extension - market based. Third Congress of Agricultural Extension and Education Sciences, Iranian Agricultural Extension and Education Association. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, March 11-12. (Persian)
  • Berthe, A. (2015). Extension and advisory services rural extension services for agricultural transformation. Background Technical Paper, pp. 1-30.
  • Bowen, C. and Bowen, W. (2008). Content analysis. In: K. Yang and G. Miller (Eds) Handbook of research method in public administration, pp. 141-168.
  • Brown, S.C., Stevens, R., Troiano, P.F. and Schneider, M.K. (2002). Exploring complex phenomena: grounded theory in student affairs research. Journal of College Student Development, 43(2): 173-183.
  • CISANET (2015). Critical challenges affecting marketing of rice in Malawi: need for a fresh commitment to rice market development reforms and implementation. Civil Society Agriculture Network (CISANET), Anamwino House,
  • Dordkeshan, M.J., Shamsudin, M.N., Mohamed, Z. and Radam, A. (2017). Assessing the impact of rice import quota policy on the Malaysian rice sector. Journal of Food Products Marketing, 23(8): 890-900.
  • Farhangi, A.S.A., Saroukhani, B., Gholipour, A., … and Roshandel Arabtani, T. (2007). Designing and explaining the model of institutionalizing community strategic plans through mass media. Management Knowledge, 20(79): 53-72. (Persian)
  • Goodman, P.S., Bazerman, M. and Conlon, E. (1979). Institutionalization of planned organizational change. Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh pa Graduate School of Industrial Administration.
  • Mirzaei, R., Sedighi, H. and Falsafi, P. (2007). Evaluation of Iranian agricultural extension system. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Education Sciences, 3(2): 57-68. (Persian)
  • Moradi, M.A., Sakhdari, K.A. and Saniei, S. (2017). Influence of institutional factors on the rate of international entrepreneurship in developing countries. Journal of Entrepreneurship Development, 10(2): 339-358. (Persian)
  • Negahdar, M., Hosseini Yekani, S.A.A., Shahnoushi, N. and Mohammadi, H. (2016). Specifications of rice futures contract in Mazandaran province. Agricultural Economics and Development, 24(94): 1-23. (Persian)
  • Nkuba, J., Ndunguru, A., Madulu, R., Lwezaura, D., Kajiru, G., Babu, A., . . . and Ley, G. (2016). Rice value chain analysis in Tanzania: identification of constraints, opportunities and upgrading strategies. African Crop Science Journal, 24(1): 73-87.
  • Osun, T. (2015). Impact of agricultural technology and market access on welfare of rice producing households in Nigeria. Christian-Albrechts Universität Kiel.
  • Palthe, J. (2014). Regulative, normative, and cognitive elements of organizations: implications for managing change. Management and Organizational Studies, 1(2): 59-66.
  • Picho, E.O. (2017). Institutional culture and procurement performance in tertiary institutions in West Nile sub-region of Uganda. European Journal of Management and Marketing Studies, 2(2): 1-31.
  • Porter, M.E. (1991). Competitive advantage. Planning, 24(4).
  • Roslund, G. (2015). Rice farming models: a comparison between conventional and large-scale rice farmers’ agrichemical work practice in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
  • SCI (2018). Summary of agricultural census plan results. Tehran: Statistical Center of Iran (SCI). (Persian)
  • Scott, W.R. (2001), Institutions and organizations (foundations for organizational science). Second Edition. Sage Publications, Inc.
  • Stenholm, P., Acs, Z.J. and Wuebker, R. (2013). Exploring country-level institutional arrangements on the rate and type of entrepreneurial activity. Journal of Business Venturing, 28(1): 176-193.
  • Takahashi, K. and Barrett, C.B. (2014). The system of rice intensification and its impacts on household income and child schooling: evidence from rural Indonesia. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 96(1): 269-289.
  • Tamba, L., Suratman, Azis, A. and Bailusy, K. (2015). Analysis of institutional actors in rice policy implementation in South Sulawesi province, Indonesia. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 2(12): 100-109.
  • van Weperen, W. (2011). Market-oriented agricultural advisory services (MOAAS): guidelines for setting up MOASS. African Forum for Agricultural Advisory Services (AFAAS) Kampala, Uganda and Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA), Accra, Ghana.
  • Wilson, R.T. and Lewis, I. (2015). The rice value chain in Tanzania. A Report from the Southern Highlands Food Systems Programme, FAO, 9.
  • Yadavar, H. (2016). The functions of marketing extension in agricultural entrepreneurship. Journal of Studies in Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Agricultural Development, 3(10): 17-36. (Persian)
  • Zida, A., Lavis, J.N., Sewankambo, N.K., Kouyate, B. and Ouedraogo, S. (2018). Evaluating the process and extent of institutionalization: a case study of a rapid response unit for health policy in Burkina Faso. International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 7(1): 15.
  1. ADF (2016). The Gambia Agriculture Value Chains Development Project. Appraisal Report, OSAN Department. March 2016. African Development Fund (ADF).
  2. Bagheri, A. and Shabanali Fami, H. (2009). Extension - market based. Third Congress of Agricultural Extension and Education Sciences, Iranian Agricultural Extension and Education Association. Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, March 11-12. (Persian)
  3. Berthe, A. (2015). Extension and advisory services rural extension services for agricultural transformation. Background Technical Paper, pp. 1-30.
  4. Bowen, C. and Bowen, W. (2008). Content analysis. In: K. Yang and G. Miller (Eds) Handbook of research method in public administration, pp. 141-168.
  5. Brown, S.C., Stevens, R., Troiano, P.F. and Schneider, M.K. (2002). Exploring complex phenomena: grounded theory in student affairs research. Journal of College Student Development, 43(2): 173-183.
  6. CISANET (2015). Critical challenges affecting marketing of rice in Malawi: need for a fresh commitment to rice market development reforms and implementation. Civil Society Agriculture Network (CISANET), Anamwino House,
  7. Dordkeshan, M.J., Shamsudin, M.N., Mohamed, Z. and Radam, A. (2017). Assessing the impact of rice import quota policy on the Malaysian rice sector. Journal of Food Products Marketing, 23(8): 890-900.
  8. Farhangi, A.S.A., Saroukhani, B., Gholipour, A., … and Roshandel Arabtani, T. (2007). Designing and explaining the model of institutionalizing community strategic plans through mass media. Management Knowledge, 20(79): 53-72. (Persian)
  9. Goodman, P.S., Bazerman, M. and Conlon, E. (1979). Institutionalization of planned organizational change. Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh pa Graduate School of Industrial Administration.
  10. Mirzaei, R., Sedighi, H. and Falsafi, P. (2007). Evaluation of Iranian agricultural extension system. Journal of Agricultural Extension and Education Sciences, 3(2): 57-68. (Persian)
  11. Moradi, M.A., Sakhdari, K.A. and Saniei, S. (2017). Influence of institutional factors on the rate of international entrepreneurship in developing countries. Journal of Entrepreneurship Development, 10(2): 339-358. (Persian)
  12. Negahdar, M., Hosseini Yekani, S.A.A., Shahnoushi, N. and Mohammadi, H. (2016). Specifications of rice futures contract in Mazandaran province. Agricultural Economics and Development, 24(94): 1-23. (Persian)
  13. Nkuba, J., Ndunguru, A., Madulu, R., Lwezaura, D., Kajiru, G., Babu, A., . . . and Ley, G. (2016). Rice value chain analysis in Tanzania: identification of constraints, opportunities and upgrading strategies. African Crop Science Journal, 24(1): 73-87.
  14. Osun, T. (2015). Impact of agricultural technology and market access on welfare of rice producing households in Nigeria. Christian-Albrechts Universität Kiel.
  15. Palthe, J. (2014). Regulative, normative, and cognitive elements of organizations: implications for managing change. Management and Organizational Studies, 1(2): 59-66.
  16. Picho, E.O. (2017). Institutional culture and procurement performance in tertiary institutions in West Nile sub-region of Uganda. European Journal of Management and Marketing Studies, 2(2): 1-31.
  17. Porter, M.E. (1991). Competitive advantage. Planning, 24(4).
  18. Roslund, G. (2015). Rice farming models: a comparison between conventional and large-scale rice farmers’ agrichemical work practice in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.
  19. SCI (2018). Summary of agricultural census plan results. Tehran: Statistical Center of Iran (SCI). (Persian)
  20. Scott, W.R. (2001), Institutions and organizations (foundations for organizational science). Second Edition. Sage Publications, Inc.
  21. Stenholm, P., Acs, Z.J. and Wuebker, R. (2013). Exploring country-level institutional arrangements on the rate and type of entrepreneurial activity. Journal of Business Venturing, 28(1): 176-193.
  22. Takahashi, K. and Barrett, C.B. (2014). The system of rice intensification and its impacts on household income and child schooling: evidence from rural Indonesia. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 96(1): 269-289.
  23. Tamba, L., Suratman, Azis, A. and Bailusy, K. (2015). Analysis of institutional actors in rice policy implementation in South Sulawesi province, Indonesia. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 2(12): 100-109.
  24. van Weperen, W. (2011). Market-oriented agricultural advisory services (MOAAS): guidelines for setting up MOASS. African Forum for Agricultural Advisory Services (AFAAS) Kampala, Uganda and Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA), Accra, Ghana.
  25. Wilson, R.T. and Lewis, I. (2015). The rice value chain in Tanzania. A Report from the Southern Highlands Food Systems Programme, FAO, 9.
  26. Yadavar, H. (2016). The functions of marketing extension in agricultural entrepreneurship. Journal of Studies in Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Agricultural Development, 3(10): 17-36. (Persian)
  27. Zida, A., Lavis, J.N., Sewankambo, N.K., Kouyate, B. and Ouedraogo, S. (2018). Evaluating the process and extent of institutionalization: a case study of a rapid response unit for health policy in Burkina Faso. International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 7(1): 15.