تأمین مالی روستاییان در فضای تأمین مالی کشاورزی: مطالعه موردی کشورهای هند، چین و ترکیه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

2 دانشیار اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

3 دانشجوی دکتری اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

4 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد اقتصاد کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران.

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر، با مطالعه نظام‌ها و شیوه‌های تأمین مالی روستایی و کشاورزی کشورهایی همچون هند، چین و ترکیه، بر آن بود که ضمن درک بهتر سازوکارهای اعتباری اجراشده توسط نهادهای تأمین مالی در این کشورها، به طراحی یک نظام تأمین مالی مستحکم‌تر و کارآمدتر برای تأمین مالی روستایی در فضای تأمین مالی کشاورزی کشور بپردازد. اگرچه عوامل سیاسی، اقتصادی و نیز میراث جغرافیایی و تاریخی، بخش کشاورزی و به تبع آن، تأمین مالی این بخش را در هر کشوری متأثر و منحصربه‌فرد می‌سازد، اما معمولاً بررسی تجارب کشورهای مختلف می‌تواند ضمن روشن ساختن مسیر، به سازمان‏دهی نظام تأمین مالی بهینه برای این بخش کمک شایانی کند. بنابراین، با بررسی نظام‌های مالی مختلف بخش کشاورزی، می‌توان در راستای رسیدن به هدف تأمین مالی پایدار بخش کشاورزی، به چارچوبی مشترک دست یافت. در پژوهش حاضر، با توجه به دستاوردها و نتایج بررسی مدل‌های تأمین مالی کشاورزی در کشورهای منتخب، فرآیند تأمین مالی طراحی‌شده برای بهبود نظام مالی کشاورزی کشور ارائه شد. در این مدل، سعی شد که با اصلاح بنیادین در ساختار و شیوه‌های اعطای وام در بخش کشاورزی توسط مؤسسات مالی و اعتباری و ایجاد انعطاف‌پذیری در پرداخت وام، از یک‌سو، هزینه‌های مبادله کاهش یابد و از سوی دیگر، اعتبار مورد نیاز کشاورزان در زمان مناسب تأمین شود. در چارچوب طراحی‌شده، با توجه به اهمیت زیربخش‌ها در ارزش افزوده بخش کشاورزی، شناسایی فعالیت‌ها و خدمات دارای بیشترین اولویت و نیز دارای بیشترین معوقات در بازپرداخت تسهیلات برای بهبود وصول مطالبات با روش‌های جایگزین ضروری می‌نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Fundings for the Rural People in Agricultural Financing Environment: A Case Study of India, China and Turkey

نویسندگان [English]

  • N. Shahnoushi 1
  • L. Abolhassani 2
  • E. Aazam-Rahmati 3
  • R. Mohammadzadeh 4
1 Professor of Agricultural Economics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Agricultural Economics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
3 PhD Student in Agricultural Economics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
4 MSc. Graduate in Agricultural Economics, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

By investigating the rural and agricultural financing systems and methods of the selected countries including India, China and Turkey, this study sought to better understand the credit mechanisms implemented by financing institutions in these countries as well as to design a stronger and more efficient financing system for rural financing in the environment of Iran's agricultural financing. Although, the political and economic factors and the geographical and historical heritage factors affect the agricultural sector and consequently, the financing of this sector and make it unique in each country, reviewing the experiences of different countries can usually help to organize the optimal financing system for this sector while clarifying the path. Therefore, by examining the different financial systems of the agricultural sector, a common framework can be achieved in order to achieve the goal of sustainable financing of the agricultural sector. According to the achievements and results of the study of agricultural financing models in selected countries, the financing process designed to improve the agricultural financial system of the country was presented. In this model, an attempt was made to fundamentally reform the structure and methods of lending in the agricultural sector by financial and credit institutions and to create flexibility in lending so that the transaction costs would be reduced and the credit required by farmers could be funded at the right time. In the designed framework, due to the importance of sub-sectors in the value added of the agricultural sector, it seems necessary to identify the activities and services that have the highest priority and also the most delays in repaying facilities to improve the collection of receivables by alternative methods.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Financing
  • Rural People
  • agriculture
  • Financial Services
  • Financial Innovations
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