بررسی اثرات اقتصادی- اجتماعی و زیست‌محیطی خشکسالی بر مناطق روستایی استان کردستان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران.

2 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

خشکسالی، به‌عنوان یکی از مخاطرات محیطی، اثرات زیانبار زیست‌محیطی از خود برجای می‌گذارد پژوهش حاضر، با هدف بررسی روند خشکسالی‌ها و تأثیرات آن بر وضعیت اقتصادی، اجتماعی و زیست‌محیطی در سکونتگاه‌های روستایی استان کردستان، به روش توصیفی-تحلیلی انجام شد. جامعه آماری، شامل 384 نفر، از میان سرپرستان خانوارهای استان کردستان در سال 1398 انتخاب شدند. برای تعیین وضعیت خشکسالی، ابتدا بررسی وضعیت بارش در یک دوره زمانی 27 ساله (1365 تا 1392) بر اساس شاخص SPI و همچنین، تبیین پیامدهای خشکسالی به روش پیمایشی با استفاده از پرسشنامه صورت گرفت. نتایج به روش SPI نشان داد که شهرستان‌های قروه نوزده سال، بیجار و سنندج هر کدام با هفده سال، سقز و بانه هر کدام با شانزده سال، زرینه با پانزده سال و مریوان با چهارده سال خشکسالی را از انواع ملایم تا شدید تجربه کردند. نتایج تحلیل عاملی در عوامل اقتصادی، زیست‌محیطی و اجتماعی نشان داد که در کل، این عوامل 03/55 درصد کل واریانس را تبیین می‌کند؛ و از آن میان، عامل اقتصادی با تبیین 91/22 درصد در ردة نخست قرار می‏گیرد و عوامل زیست‌محیطی و اجتماعی، به‌ترتیب، با تبیین 27/17 و 85/14 درصد کل واریانس در رده‌های بعدی قرار دارند؛ همچنین، در میان این عوامل، بیشترین تأثیرات خشکسالی به سه متغیر کاهش سطح درآمد با 782/0، کاهش دبی آب چشمه‌ها با 705/0 و مهاجرت با 766/0 درصد برمی‌گردد. برای بهبود معیشت و ماندگاری روستاییان، استفاده از ذخیره آب سدها، توسعه نظام باغداری و آموزش کشاورزان در راستای متنوع‌سازی حرفه‌ها و مشاغل روستایی از راهکارهای پیشنهادی به‌شمار می‌روند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Socio-Economic and Environmental Effects of Drought on Rural Areas of Kurdistan Province of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • R. Bahrami 1
  • F. Sapari 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Geography and Rural Planning, Payame Noor University, Tehran-Iran.
2 Master of Agriculture, Payame Noor University, Tehran-Iran.
چکیده [English]

Drought, as one of the environmental hazards, has harmful effects on the environment. This study aimed at investigating the drought trends and their effects on the economic, social and environmental situations of the rural settlements of Kurdistan province in Iran. It was conducted in a descriptive-analytical method. The statistical population consisted of 384 household heads of the province. In order to determine the drought status, in the first place, the precipitation over a period of 27 years (1987-2014) was investigated on the basis of Standard Precipitation index (SPI); then, the effects and consequences of droughts were explained in a survey method through a questionnaire. Results of SPI showed that the counties of Ghorveh with 19, Bijar and Sanandaj each one with 17, Saqez and Baneh each one with 16, Zarrineh with 15 and Marivan with 14 years had experienced mild to severe droughts. Factor analysis results indicated that the economic, environmental and social factors could explain 55.03 percent of total variance (22.91 percent for the economic, 17.27 percent for the environmental and 14.85 percent for the social factors); in addition, three variables including decrease in income level with 0.782, decrease in spring water discharge with 0.705 and migration with 0.766 percent had the most drought effects. In order to improve the livelihood and sustainability of the rural settlements, the use of dam water storage, development of horticultural system, training the farmers to diversify the rural occupations and jobs are some of the recommended solutions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • drought
  • Standard Precipitation index (SPI)
  • instability
  • Village
  • Kurdistan
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