نقش سیاست‌های دولت در پایداری/ ناپایداری فعالیت‌های مولد زراعی: مطالعه موردی شهرستان‌های ترکمن و گمیشان از 1360 تا 1390

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران.

2 استاد جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه ریزی روستایی دانشگاه پیام نور

چکیده

سیاست‌های دولت‌ها یکی از عوامل اثرگذار در فعالیت‌های کشاورزی است. پژوهش حاضر با رویکرد کیفی و استفاده از روش تحقیق نظریه زمینه‏ای، به بررسی این عوامل در دو شهرستان ترکمن و گمیشان در استان گلستان طی دوره 1360 تا 1390 پرداخت و در آن، مطالعات میدانی از طریق انتخاب 32 نفر مشارکت‌کننده به روش گلوله‌برفی، صورت گرفت. یافته‌ها نشان داد که چهار سیاست کشت و توسعة محصولات راهبردی، تنوع‌بخشی به فعالیت‌های اقتصادی با ایجاد شهرک‌های صنعتی در نواحی روستایی، سدسازی و نیز تسطیح و زهکشی اراضی عمده‌ترین سیاست‌های اثرگذار دولت در ساخت زراعی و فعالیت‌های مولد زراعی ناحیه مورد مطالعه به شمار می‏روند؛ افزون بر این، افزایش اشتغال روستاییان و افزایش توان خاک از پیامد‌های مثبت دو سیاست تنوع‌بخشی به فعالیت‌های اقتصادی و تسطیح و زهکشی اراضی بوده و همچنین، کاهش منافع اقتصادی، تغییر الگوی کشت، کاهش آب رود، افزایش هزینه‌های دامداری و کاهش دامداری و در نهایت، ناپایداری فعالیت‌های زراعی و اقتصاد روستایی و نیز ضعف فعالیت‌های مولد زراعی از پیامدهای منفی سیاست‏های دولت ارزیابی شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Government Policies in Sustainability/Unsustainability of Productive Agrarian Activities: A Case Study of Turkmen and Gomishan Counties of Iran, 1981-2011

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Gharanjik 1
  • H. Afrakhteh 2
  • A. Nazari 3
1 PhD Graduate in Geography and Rural Planning, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor of Geography and Rural Planning, Payame Noor University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran.
3 Associate Professor of Geography and Rural Planning, Payame Noor University
چکیده [English]

Government policy is one of the factors affecting the agricultural activities. This study aimed at investigating these factors using a qualitative approach and Grounded theory in two counties of Turkmen and Gomishan in Golestan province of Iran during the period of 1981-2011. Field studies were carried out through the selection of 32 snowball participants. The results showed that the four policies of cultivating and developing strategic products, diversifying into economic activities by creating industrial settlements in rural areas, damming and modernization, leveling and drainage of land were the main policies affecting the agrarian production and productive agrarian activities in the studied area; in addition, there were positive consequences including an increase in rural employment and improved soil capacity as a result of two policies of diversification of economic activities and land leveling and drainage as well as the negative consequences of lowering economic benefits, changing crop patterns, reducing water supply, raising livestock costs and the reduction of livestock breeding resulted in the instability of agricultural activities and rural economy as well as the weakness of crop production activities.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Government Policy
  • Agrarian Activities
  • Agrarian Structure
  • Turkmen (County)
  • Gomishan (County)
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