A Comparative Study of Land Reform Act and Its Amendment in Iran

Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Professor, Imam Khomaini Higher Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education, and Extension Organization, Karaj, Iran.

2 Professor, Department of Rural Development, Faculty of New Technologies and Energy Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Zirab, Iran.


Undoubtedly, land reform is among the significant events of Iran's contemporary history. The importance of this issue has made the experts in different fields examine and analyze the subject from different aspects. This descriptive-analytical aimed at comparing the “act” of land reform adopted by the National Assembly and Senate in 1959 and 1960 with its amendment “bill” adopted by the Cabinet of Ministers in 1961 to find out the most important aspects of their differentiating and sharing features. The results indicated that the preparation and drafting of the “bill” had been carefully reviewed by the producers so that as far as possible, it could be implemented in line with the conditions and rules governing the villages of Iran; moreover, compared to the “act”, the “bill” entailed more benefits for the farmers, rather than the land owners while the “act” entailed more benefits for the land owners, rather than the farmers. As shown, granting more authority to the ministry of agriculture in the “bill” compared to the “act” was one of the other differences between them. Accordingly, the mentioned items could be considered as the advantages of the “bill” compared to the “act” while the exclusion of endowed lands might be one of the advantages of the “act”.


Main Subjects

  1. Adamiyat, F. (1984).The thought of social democracy in Iran's constitutional movement. Third. Edition. Tehran: Payam Publication. (Persian)
  2. Alam, M.R. and Kazemi, S. (2017). The impact of constitutional revolution on the land ownership system evolution. Journal of Historical Researches,. 9(33): 93- 106. (Persian).
  3. Bakhtiary, M. (2013). Collection of Abdolazim Hassani and its charities. Journal of Charity, Immortal Heritage, 21(84): 137-154. (Persian)
  4. CBIRI (2007). Land reform and its performance in some countries. Tehran: Central Bank of Islamic Republic of Iran (CBIRI), Department of Economic Studies. (Persian)
  5. Dehghan, A. (1999). Educational changes in Pahlavi era. Journal of Iranian Contemporary History, 3(11): 239-322. (Persian)
  6. 7.   Hosseini Kazerouni, M.R. (1983). Buy and sell in rural and nomad society of Iran. Tehran: Agah Book. (Persian)
  7. Lambton, A.K.S. (2016). Land reform in Iran. Translated by M. Shaghian. Second Edition. Tehran: Amir-Kabir Publication. (Persian)
  8. 9.   Majd. M.Gh. (2005). Small land owners and land reform in Iran, 1962-71. Translated by A.R. Karimi. Journal of Iranian Contemporary History, 33: 5- 54. (Persian)
  9. Mostofi, A. (2009). Explanation of my life: social and administrative history of Qajar era (Vol. 2). Sixth. Edition. Tehran: Zavvar Publication. (Persian)
  10. Salour, A. (1997). Land reform, necessities, how to run, and consequences. Journal of Iranian Contemporary History, 1(4): 243-276. (Persian)