Identification and Evaluation of Deterioration Cycle in Rural Textures: A Case Study of Rural Areas in Tehran Province of Iran

Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD Graduate in Geography and Rural Planning, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Studies in Geography, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran, Iran.

3 Professor, Department of Studies in Geography, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran, Iran.

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Studies in Geography, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran, Iran.


The deterioration of rural textures is process-oriented, and even when the area is still in the stage of deterioration, the renewal of deteriorated areas must be done before the region reaches a very bad stage, which is completely unused. In this regard, identification and evaluation of texture deterioration cycle is one of the most important parts in the process of rural renewal activities. Hence, based on the four stages of the deterioration cycle (including the formation of primary grounds, the emergence of signs of deterioration, the improper living environment and reduction of texture efficiency, and the completion of deterioration), this study sought to identify the cycle of texture deterioration in rural area of Tehran province in Iran as well as to determine their physical textures in terms of positioning in this cycle using mathematical models. Accordingly, this study was conducted in a descriptive and applied method, and the required information were collected in both library and field methods through a questionnaire and interviews with 260 households and fifteen scientific specialists and local managers in the deteriorated villages fringe of Tehran metropolitan (mostly) in eight selected counties, which their views and opinions were received, described and analyzed. The results showed that the villages of Tehran province were in the third stage of texture deterioration cycle known as "the improper living environment and reduction of texture efficiency".


Main Subjects

  1. Acioly, J. and Claudio, C. (1999). Institutional and urban management instruments for inner city revitalisation: a brief review with special focus on Brazilian experiences. Paper Presented at the International Conference “Shelter and Revitalisation of Old and Historic Urban Centres”, Havana. Available at (Retrieved at 28 May 2017).
  2. Akbari, N., Khoshakhlaq, R. and Mardiha, S. (2013). Measurement and valuation of factors affecting housing choice using a choice experiment method: viewpoints of households living at old urban textures of Isfahan. The Economic Research (Sustainable Research Quarterly), 13(13): 19-47. (Persian)
  3. Andalib, A. (2007). Renovation process of the deteriorated textures of Tehran County (Vol. 4). Tehran: Tehran Renovation Organization: Office for the Renovation of Deteriorated Textures. (Persian)
  4. Asadiyan, F. and Siyahi, Z. (2011). The role of public participation model in improvement and renovation of urban worn textures using geography information system (GIS) sample case: Ahwaz-Ameri neighborhood. Environmentally Based Territorial Planning (Amayesh), 4(12): 139-163. (Persian)
  5. Ástmarsson, B., Anker Jensen, P. and Maslesa, E. (2013). Sustainable renovation of residential buildings and the landlord/tenant dilemma. Energy Policy, 63: 355-362.
  6. Davari, M. (2014). From deteriorated textures rehabilitation to sustainable rural development. Paper Presented at the National Conference on Sustainable Rural Development in Horizon 2025, Isfahan. Available at (Retrieved at 28 Aug 2019). (Persian)
  7. Davoodi, S.M. and Jalali, S.H. (2010). Urban development and economic mechanisms for rehabilitation and renovation of deteriorated textures (Tehran). Urban Economic, 2(2): 16-21. (Persian)
  8. Dayyani, L. (2018). Pattern presentation for organizing the rural deteriorated textures in the metropolises fringe (case study: the rural areas of Tehran province). PhD Thesis of Geography and Rural Planning. Faculty of Humanities, University of Tarbiat Modares, Tehran. (Persian).
  9. Dayyani, L., Pourtaheri, M., Rokneddin Eftekhari, A.R. and Ahmadi, H. (2019). The identification and zoning of areas having rural deteriorated textures in the Tehran province using KDE and GIS. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, 25(1-2): 475-504. DOI:
  10. Eisenberg, A.M. (2016). Addressing rural blight: lessons from West Virginia and WVLEAP. Journal of Affordable Housing, 24(3): 513-546.
  11. Gordon, C. (2003). Blighting the way: urban renewal, economic development, and the elusive definition of blight. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 31(2): 305-337.
  12. Hodaei, A., Feizi, V. and Nowroozi, R. (2013). Estimating the potential risks caused by an earthquake in deteriorated textures (case study: Eastern Sangalaj neighborhood in Tehran's 12th region). Rescue and Relief, 5(3): 1-17. (Persian)
  13. Hayes Luce, H. (2000). The meaning of blight: a survey of statutory and case law. Real Property, Probate and Trust Journal, 35(2): 389-478.
  14. Iran‌Municipalities‌and‌Rural‌Management‌Organization (2006). Management and organization of rural deteriorated textures. Tehran: Center for Specialized Studies and Services of Urban and Rural, Institute for Humanities and Social Sciences Academic Jihad. (Persian).
  15. Ishizaki, T. and Takami, M. (2015). Deterioration of the wall of a historic stone building in a cold region and measures to protect it. Energy Procedia, 78: 1371-1376.
  16. Khan-Mohammadi, Z. (2015). Investigation of rural-urban phenomena in the process of creating urban deteriorated texture or rural development. Paper Presented at the First International Congress on Ardebil, Earth, Space and Clean Energy, University of Mohaghegh Ardebili. Availanle at (Retrieved at 28 Aug 2019). (Persian)
  17. Lefcoe, G. (2008). Redevelopment takings after Kelo: what’s blight got to do with it? Review of Law and Social Justice, 17(3): 803-851.
  18. Li, P., Qian, H. and Zhou, W. (2017). Finding harmony between the environment and humanity: an introduction to the thematic issue of the Silk Road. Environ. Earth Sci., 76(105): 1-4. DOI: 10.1007/s12665-017-6428-9.
  19. Malek-Mahmoudi, N., Piri, M., Daneshfar, H., Farahi, T., Kazemi, A., Karami, S.A. and Mahvi, R. (2012). The epistemology of Tehran province (trial-experimental)- 236. Third Edition. Tehran, Iran: Ministry of Education and Training, Research Organization and Educational Planning Publishers. (Persian)
  20. Morovvati, N. and Latifi, G. (2012). A study of social factors affecting the desire of inhabitants in worn textures for renovation: a case study of Imamzadeh Abdollah district in Tehran. Social Development and Welfare Planning, 3(10): 187-226. (Persian)
  21. Nazeri, S. and Rouhi-Kalash, H. (2008). Rehabilitation and renovation of urban deteriorated textures: turning threats into opportunities. Journal of Geographic Space, 8(21): 117-151. (Persian)
  22. Niknami, K. and Dehpahlavan, M. (2013). Formation of the Silk Road in the light of security (case study: the relics and archaeological finds periphery of road, from Semnan to Garmsar). Geopolitics Quarterly, 9(2): 230-255. (Persian)
  23. Pourahmad, A. and Zarei, J. (2015). Measuring the life quality in the urban deteriorated texture area (case study: 9th District of Tehran). Journal of Urban Research and Planning, 8(21): 1-18. (Persian)
  24. Pourahmad, A., Ziari, K. and Hosseini, A. (2015). Regeneration of urban blight with emphasis on leisure spaces; a case study: Gheytariyeh neighborhood, Tehran. Spatial Planning, 19(3): 1-37. (Persian)
  25. Rajabi, A., Parhizgar, A. and Aboozari, P. (2010). Rehabilitation, renovation and reconstruction of rural deteriorated textures (case study: Darabad neighborhood). Geography, 4(14): 13-40. (Persian)
  26. Ramachandran, A. (2014). Urban renewal- Chetput station area. Master Thesis for the Master of Planning Degree, Department of Planning, School of Architecture and Planning Campus, University of Chennai: Anna.
  27. Robinson and Cole. (2007). Urban blight: an analysis of state blight statutes and their implications for eminent domain reform. BOST: The National Association of REALTORS®.
  28. Sabri Emara, A.A. and Korany, M.S. (2016). An analytical study of building materials and deterioration factors of Farasan heritage houses, and the recommendations of conservation and rehabilitation (German house case study). Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 216: 561-569.
  29. Saidi, A. (1998). The principles of rural geography. First Edition. Tehran: SAMT. (Persian)
  30. Samiei, A. and Sayafzadeh, A. (2016). Analysis of the worn-out tissues characteristics and providing of intervention pattern (case study: Eslamshahr city, Tehran). Current Urban Studies, 4: 267-279.
  31. Shaker Ardekani, R. and Akhgar, H. (2014). Applying gentrification process for historical texture of Ardakan city, Yazd, Iran. International Journal of Recent Advances in Multidisciplinary Research, 01(03): 014-025.
  32. Shamaei, A. and Pourahmad, A. (2005). Urban rehabilitation and renovation from the viewpoint of geographical science. First Edition. Tehran: University of Tehran. (Persian)
  33. Statistical‌Center‌of‌Iran (2012). Population and housing census, November 2011. Available at (Retrieved at 18 April 2017). (Persian)
  34. Tehran‌Governor (2013). Statistical yearbook of Tehran province-2012. Tehran, Iran: Tehran Governor, Office of Statistical and Information, and Management and Planning Organization of Tehran Province. (Persian)
  35. Weaver, R.C. and Bagchi-Sen, S. (2013). Spatial analysis of urban decline: the geography of blight. Applied Geography, 40: 61-70.
  36. Zargar, A. (2009). Rural texture.Encyclopedia of urban and rural management. Tehran: Ministry of Science, Research and Technology; Ministry of Interior, Iran Municipalities and Rural Management Organization. (Persian)
  37. Zebardast, E., Khalili, A. and Dehghani, M. (2013). Application of factor analysis method in the identification of decayed urban fabrics. Fine Arts of Architecture (Honar-ha-ye-Ziba-Memari-va-Shahrsazi), 18(2): 27-42. DOI: 10.22059/JFAUP.2013.50524 (Persian)